section describes the collection and analysis of customer, retail, competitive,
and General Mills data. All of the tools required will be described in
detail or have been covered in Market Intelligence. A brief summary of
each is offered here. Copies of articles or chapters/pages from books
are linked on the project website. Feel free to scout out other tools
and frameworks that might be helpful.
data include behavioral, perceptual, and psychographic data related to customers.
data and techniques examine actual consumer behavior in the focal or related
Description: These national data run from 8/11/00
to 8/11/01. The data reflect a cross-sectional view of consumer purchase
behavior, the incidence and effect of promotion, and distribution levels.
Nielsen Scanner Data
Scanner Data Dictionary
Julie Beattie (Fuqua ’01) made a presentation
about the nature and use of scanner data for Market Intelligence. I am
attaching her presentation for your information. Note that she discusses
more metrics than General Mills has made available to us.
Description: These data examine how consumers actually use products.
This includes frequency and usage context (where, when). Often researchers
will examine “why” usage as well because context and motivation are usually
linked in important ways.
Pam Murtaugh’s presentation
on 11/7 will discuss consumer experiences. In addition, your interviews
and focus groups can provide information about consumer usage behaviors.
You may be able to find some syndicated or published data in the business
or popular press on usage. The links below will be a useful start in
explaining the importance of usage situation.
Mowen, John (1995), Consumer Behavior,
Jagdish, Banwari Mittal, and Bruce Newman (1999), Consumer
Behavior and Beyond, pp. 438-440.
Wayne and Deborah McInnis (1997), Consumer
Behavior, pp. 4-5.
Pam Murtaugh’s business prospectus.
Description: Marketers study both attitudinal and behavioral loyalty
data. Attitudinal data would provide information about a consumer’s commitment
to the brand – do they feel loyalty. Behavioral loyalty would measure
loyalty by examining a consumer’s actual purchase and/usage behaviors.
Sources: Behavioral loyalty information is contained in the Nielsen
Panel Data in the “Share of Requirements” metric. Share of requirements
is the percent of a buyers’ total category volume accounted for by the
data examine consumer beliefs, goals, and other critical cognitive elements
Description: Data provides information regarding
what attributes consumers’ value in current and hypothetical products.
This type of information can be gleaned from depth interviews (see below),
focus groups (see below), surveys (see Market Intelligence), a conjoint
analysis study (see Market Intelligence), or an experiment (see Market
Intelligence). In the case of a conjoint study or an experiment, the
basic approach would be to vary the attributes in an offering and determine
how this affects preference for that alternative. Conjoint is a sophisticated
analytic tool that decomposes alternatives into attribute weights. An
experiment would involve your manipulation of actual products or product
profiles to determine impact on preferences.
Sources: All of these sources were used in Market Intelligence
“Conjoint Analysis: A Manager’s Guide”
Wyner, Gordon A., “Uses
and Limitations of Conjoint Analysis, Part 1”
online conjoint tools:
Conjointonline.com -- Online
version of Adaptive Conjoint Analysis
Dog Selector -- Powered by ActiveBuyersGuide
End Personal Shopper -- Powered by quickdog.com
Memetrics -- Personalization technology
using conjoint-based choice modeling
Kumar, Aaker, and Day (1999), “Chapter
12 – Experimentation,” in Essentials of Marketing Research.
Description: Marketers try to understand consumers’ knowledge structures
by plotting means-end chains. A means-end chain is a knowledge structure
that links a consumer’s knowledge about product attributes with their
knowledge about consequences and values. The means-end perspective suggests
that consumers think about product attributes subjectively in terms of
personal consequences. Marketers use direct elicitation, free-sort tasks,
triad tasks, and laddering to construct means-end chains
Peter, J. Paul and Jerry C. Olson (1996), Consumer
Behavior and Marketing Strategy, pp. 73-78.
data and techniques focus on consumer attitudes, interests, opinions, and lifestyle
Description: Focus groups involve multiple consumers reflecting on products, concepts,
the category, or underlying needs.
Richard Krueger (1994),
Focus Groups, see pages 16-38 and 53-73.
Randazzo, Sal (1993), “Chapter
6: Building Your Brand’s Mythology: Information, Insight, and Ideas,”
in Mythmaking on Madison Avenue, Chicago, Ill, 163-171.
Description: Involve one-on-one discussions that examine cultural
forces, lifestyle factors and psychological needs. These interviews are
now gaining prestige within the marketing research community as offering
depth of insight surrounding latent needs.
Grant McCracken (1988) Chapters 2 and 3, The
Robert Weiss (1994), Chapters
1, 2, and 4, Learning from Strangers.
Craig J., William B. Locander and Howard R. Pollio (1989), “Putting
Consumer Experience Back Into Consumer Research: The Philosophy and Method
of Existential-Phenomenology,” Journal of Consumer Research,
16 (September), 133-147.
data may come from published sources such as Statistical Abstract,
from popular press sources such as USA Today, or from syndicated
sources (see below). This type of data is pervasive and yet often not
used by marketers. Talk shows, books, movie themes reveal lifestyle shifts.
Your focus can be broad to begin with but you must also consider lifestyle
trends as they affect food purchasing, preparation, and consumption.
There is also a fair amount of academic literature associated lifestyle
shifts. I note several articles that I’m aware of but if you think this
is useful, search further:
Popcorn, Faith and Lys Marigold (1996), Clicking
: 16 trends to future fit your life, your work, and your business,
New York: HarperCollins.
Popcorn, Faith (2000), EVEolution
: The Eight Truths of Marketing to Women, New York : Hyperion.
Future Society: Social and technological forecasts and publisher
of The Futurist.
Bureau of Labor Statistics:
Contains consumer expenditure data
of Families and Households at the Center for Demography and Ecology,
University of Wisconsin – Madison.
Center for Mature
Consumer Studies at the University of Geogia.
Conference Board’s Consumer Research Center
Reserve’s Survey of Consumer Finances
The Gallup Organization
Sales and Marketing Management’s Survey of Buying
Power – (9/99), (9/00), and (9/01) (available in FSB
library databases and in print)
Demographics and also available on FSB library databases and in print
Thompson, Craig (1996) “Caring
Consumers: Gendered Consumption Meanings and the Juggling Lifestyle,”
Journal of Consumer Research, 22 (March), 388-407.
Schor, Juliet B. (1993), The
Overworked American, (2000), Do
Americans Shop Too Much?
Statistical Abstract (FSB
data bases - see Statistical Abstract of the US, STAT
Description: This data are aggregated across consumers with the goal to provide general
lifestyle information about different aspects of consumer attitudes, interests,
Analyst contains relevant information on the purchase behaviors
and media patterns associated with certain lifestyle clusters.
Research Inc. (MRI) and Simmons
are media sources that provide information on lifestyle clusters and their
media and product purchase behaviors. This is general information about
consumer usage behaviors embedded in this data.
International’s VALS information. This approach segments
the market on resource level (financial, material, health, education psychological)
as well as self-orientation (principle-oriented, status-oriented, and
action-oriented). Eight segments result. Although you will be unlikely
to get VALS data on these customers, the VALS survey is online and will
classify consumers taking the survey. The framework may be a useful conceptual
tool as well.
Geodemographic sources that combine geographic data, psychographic data,
media usage, and purchase data. PRIZM is one tool that uses this data
to create 62 lifestyle groups that are linked to zip codes. They have
information (+) that
might be interesting to examine.
Leisure Trends, Inc.
for studies of how Americans spend their free time.
Description: There is an emerging sense that consumers affiliate
more and more with others who share a lifestyle orientation that expresses
life themes, deeply held values, and goals. As Cova (1996, p. 19) explains,
“Modern society was conceived as an ensemble of social groups: socio-professional
categories, social classes, and so on. Postmodern society, in contrast,
resembles a network of societal micro-groups in which people share strong
emotional links, a common subculture, a vision of life. In our times
… occupational communities such as those of computer engineers or ballet
dancers, and style conscious youths such as rastas or skinheads develop
their own complexes of meanings and symbols and form more or less stable
tribes that are invisible to the categories of modern sociology. Each
postmodern individual belongs to several tribes, in each of which s/he
might play a different role and wear a specific mask…. ”
There are some recent accounts of such communities in the academic literature
that may be useful.
Muniz and O’Guinn (2001), “Brand
Community,” Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (March), 412-433.
Schouten and McAlexander (1995), “Subcultures
of Consumption: An Ethnography of the New Bikers,” Journal of
Consumer Research, 22 (June), 43-61.
I have also attached tribe analyses of antique
collectors and foreign travelers
created by students.
focus on retailer as an institutional force that influences consumer and competitive
Description: An important tool that is used in many strategy development
activities involves managers immersing themselves in the retail environment.
You can approach this in any way you think would be meaningful and useful.
We suggest the following activities:
Examine a variety of stores, including grocery retailers (Foodlion,
Harris Teeter, and Kroger) and superstore or discount retailers (WalMart,
Kmart). Bowl Appetit is in all of these environments.
Examine the layout and structure of the focal and relevant competitive
product categories in the store.
Examine in-store consumer behavior related to these
These data focus on trends,
firm-level analysis, and product-level analysis.
Description: Strategy development requires that you examine the presence
of firm-wide resources and capabilities. This information will be useful
in determining what directions the firm can sustain in its strategy.
Firm information is listed by firm on the project website.
Annual reports: ConAgra,
Soups, Inc., Nestle,
Analysts reports: ConAgra,
Hormel, Campbell's Soups, Inc., Nestle, General Mills,
Kraft (available at MULTEX Investment
& Industry Reports via FSB
Business press coverage: Classico
Appetit, Healthy Choice
(+) , Stouffer's
is data about the firm or business unit’s offerings in the focal category.
Available on products in library, at the supermarket, and through a nutrition
food count book (The Complete Book of Food Counts by Corrine T.
Netzer) that I have put on reserve in the library.
you to perform taste tests of your own. Taste data may be useful in understanding
what consumers think about the taste of product offerings in this category.
Consumer Reports evaluations
of relevant food categories: (1)
awareness, equity, and meaning ratings:
I encourage you to perform tests of your own.
Week evaluations of top brands
Examine packages in the store or on products
Crocker -- Bowl Appetit!, Betty
Crocker -- Bowl Appetit!, Ragu
Easy Mac, Chef
Soup to Go, Its
Pasta Anytime, Uncle
Ben's Rice Bowl and Noodle Bowl, Stouffers
Mac & Cheese, Stouffers
Lean Cuisine, Healthy
(Real Player Needed)
Nielsen Panel Data Link containing
data on responsiveness to features and displays
Free-standing inserts: Bowl
Kid's Kitchen, Lean
Cuisine, Ragu Express (+),
Ben's Bowls (+)
scanner data provides ACV data on distribution
Nielsen panel data
contains information on percentage of buyers in different retail outlets.
You should perform store checks at various traditional
and nontraditional locations to determine the nature and intensity of
of this data corresponds to that used in the competitive data set. See the
project website for details.